It had its
genesis as far back as 1935. More than 65 years later on
August 2, 2000, Parliament passed the Bihar Reorganization
Bill creating the new state of Vananchal (Jharkhand).
Thousands poured out into the streets of Ranchi to celebrate
The state comprises eighteen districts that make up southern
Bihar, richly endowed with mineral resources. Some major
industries located in this region are established Tata
companies like TISCO and TELCO and the Indian PSU, SAIL. The
region that has only 35% of the state's population, thus far
contributed two-thirds of Bihar's revenue.
With an area of
74,677 sq km the new state is bordered by Bihar, MP, Orissa
and West Bengal to its north, west, south and east
Jharkhand is a
Sanskrit word (jhar meaning shrub), later found in several
Persian and Arabic inscriptions of the medieval period. As
early as 1900, Birsa Munda first demanded the establishment
of the Munda Raj. It was Jaipal Singh, the Oxford-educated,
hockey captain of the gold winning 1928 Olympiad who
articulated the demand for a separate state of Jharkhand. In
1935, he founded the Adivasi party that in 1949 became the
Jharkhand party. In 1963, its alliance with the Congress
support, led to a loss of support and identity in the region,
where it had once reigned supreme.
In the 70s,
several new parties emerged like the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha.
These parties frequently split but the movement for a
separate state gained widespread sympathy. The Jharkhand
Autonomous Council that came into existence in 1993 fell far
short of most expectations, as the demand for a separate
state gained momentum. As parties supporting the movement
like the BJP and the left parties (excluding the CPM) made
electoral gains in the 90s, the dream of a state finally came
to fruition, in August 2000.